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more... IntermediateLessonsSound SamplesChordsDecember 2010

The Bead Game

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The Bead Game
It’s tempting to view a chord progression as a sequence of fixed note formations that we grip and release, one after the other. This makes sense on a tactile level because, after all, it‘s what our fingers are doing. But if we only think of chords as discrete grips, we may overlook how each one is connecting to its neighbor. And when we don’t pay attention to these harmonic transitions, we can wind up lurching around the fretboard, playing voicings that don’t dovetail musically. This isn’t necessarily a bad thing. In fact, some styles demand sliding up and down the neck with barre or power chords to create a jagged effect. But, as we’ll discover in this lesson, there are other ways to navigate a progression.

One approach involves making the smallest possible shifts between the notes in one chord and the next. This technique yields a flowing, molten sound, and it’s well worth exploring.

Rules of Engagement

The concept—which, incidentally, we’re borrowing from horn and string arranging—is to have the notes in one chord move by either a half-step or whole-step to the notes in the subsequent chord. Occasionally, we interrupt this stepwise motion with a leap of a minor third (three half-steps), but that’s the largest move we make. Sometimes, one of the notes remains the same as we switch chords. This common tone acts as sonic glue, binding adjacent voicings, even as they change.

It’s fun to visualize this process as moving beads on wires. In other words, imagine each chord tone is a bead that either stays put or shifts up or down on its string by one, two, or three frets (a half-step, whole-step, and minor third, respectively) to morph into the next voicing. It’s a game: Can you play a progression without breaking these strict rules?

Warming Up
So we can clearly picture the note-to-note movement, let’s keep things simple and stick with three-note voicings on the top three strings. Most of the chords we’ll play in this lesson contain four or more notes in their full form, but we’re going to cherry-pick three that allow us to follow our bead game rules.

Download Example Audio 1...



For starters, play through the voicings in Fig. 1 to loosen up your hands and get familiar with the fingerings we’ll soon stitch into a progression. Many of these will be old friends, but some—D7 and A9, for example, in grids 2 and 3—might be new.

As you fret each of these chords, notice how three do double duty, depending on where they’re positioned: A7 and Eb° (grids 1 and 8), D7 and Eb°7 (grids 5 and 6), and Dm and D6 (grids 9 and 11). This “shared shape” phenomenon happens because we’re selecting a subset of a chord’s available tones. (If we were to fret the chords in their entirety, we’d spot their physical differences.) Expert rhythm guitarists routinely use multi-purpose fingerings to craft their parts. It takes time to master such musical sleight of hand, but the payoff is huge.

Download Example Audio 2...


Let the Games Begin
Now it’s time to put our rules into action by playing Fig. 2, a 12-bar blues progression in the key of A. As you change the first two chords, watch those beads shift when you move from A7 to D7. Check it out: On the 1st string, the top note, C#, drops a fret to C. On the 2nd and 3rd strings, each note moves up two frets, (G–A and E–F#, respectively). Excellent! We’ve created contrary motion, which serves to draw listeners into this chord change.

If you peer closely at the A7–A9–A7 changes in bars 3 and 4, you’ll see common tones (for instance, the 2nd-string G occurs in all three voicings), two whole-step moves, and a minor-third leap. Nice and tight—so far, so good.

The A7–D7 shift (bars 4 and 5) is very economical, consisting of a common tone and two half-step drops. Conversely, the D7–Eb°7 change incorporates three upward, minor-third leaps. This parallel movement is immediately balanced by the contrary motion in the Eb°7–A7 change across bars 6 and 7.

At this point, you’ve seen enough to know how the bead game works. As you complete the progression, take a moment to evaluate each chord change and track its note-to-note movement. You’ll find that right through the end of bar 12, every change consists of common tones and half-step, whole-step, or minor-third moves. The only exception is when we reach the end of bar 12 and jump back to the top to repeat the progression. Because bar 12’s E7 and bar 1’s A7 share the same fingering, try sliding from E7 to A7 for a dramatic break from our otherwise frugal motion.

By the way, the A7–Eb°–Dm–A7 move in bar 8 makes a dandy turnaround or intro. With little effort, you’ll be able to insert it into a blues or even a fingerpicked folk song.

Pressing On
The next step is to incorporate the bead game concept into your playing. We’ll be using this technique in upcoming lessons, but to really own it, you’ll need to explore it yourself. One way to get started is to transpose this lesson’s progression down an octave, placing it on lower strings. Though the chord shapes will look different—and you’ll find more than one place to fret them—the common tones and half-step, whole-step, and minor-third moves will all remain the same.

Next month, we’ll look at a trick for generating voicings that are tailor-made for a hybrid, plectrum-and-fingers picking technique.

Ah-ha!
Stepwise motion. When a melodic line moves up or down in half- or whole-steps (distances of one or two frets, respectively), it employs stepwise motion.

Contrary motion. When two lines move in opposite directions—one ascending while the other descends—they produce contrary motion. This can also occur during a chord change when one voice moves up as another moves down.

Diminished Triads and Diminished 7th Chords. Every chord type has a formula that’s derived from a major scale. (For more details on scale and chord formulas, see the November 2010 Rhythm & Grooves.) The formula for a diminished triad is 1–b3–b5, or the first, lowered third, and lowered fifth tones of a major scale. We add a fourth note to generate a diminished 7th chord, which has a formula of 1–b3–b5–bb7. A common way to identify a diminished chord is with a degree symbol, as in C°.

To identify the notes in a diminished chord, simply apply the appropriate formula to a parallel major scale. For example, to unpack a C° or C°7, we start with a C major scale (C–D–E–F–G–A–B–C) and then run the corresponding formulas. This yields C–Eb–Gb (C°) and C–Eb–Gb–Bbb (C°7). Sonically, a bb7 note is the same as a 6, so many musicians choose the latter as a kind of shorthand when spelling a diminished 7th chord. Using this informal approach, we’d identify C°7’s component notes as C–Eb–Gb–A.


Andy Ellis
PG Senior Editor Andy Ellis is a veteran guitar journalist. Since cutting his teeth on British Invasion bands—the Who, Yardbirds, and Pretty Things got the party started— he has been a certified guitar nut. Now based in Nashville, Andy backs singer-songwriters on the baritone guitar. He also hosts a weekly radio program, The Guitar Show, that broadcasts on-air and online. For the broadcast schedule, links to the stations’ streams, archived audio interviews with inspiring players, and more, visit theguitarshow.com.
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