Here's a crash course in how one of the most eclectic and influential guitarists of all time developed a unique vocabulary through speedy rockabilly licks, fuzzed-out melodies, and an otherworldly use of the vibrato bar.
- Understand Jeff Beck’s rockabilly roots.
- Learn how to create tension-filled phrases over a 12-bar blues.
- Develop a more nuanced vibrato technique.
Jeff Beck is arguably the most eclectic and ever-evolving guitar hero. He was part of the holy trinity of Yardbirds guitarists, along with Eric Clapton and Jimmy Page, and is the one who has consistently remained at the forefront of the electric guitar ever since. From John McLaughlin to Eddie Van Halen, Beck is a favorite of just about any guitar player you could name, and that includes the other Yardbirds alumni. Stephen Colbert explained it best at the Grammy awards, “You know the game Guitar Hero? He has the all-time high score—and he’s never played it.” Let’s take a look at some of the many highlights of Beck’s playing throughout his illustrious and uncompromising career.
Beck’s stint with the Yardbirds—including his groundbreaking work on such psychedelic hits as “Over Under Sideways Down” and “Heart Full of Soul”—cemented his iconic status, but his melding of influences from Chuck Berry, Cliff Gallup, and Les Paul on the blues instrumental “Jeff’s Boogie” was eye-opening to legions of guitarists in the wake of the British Invasion. Here’s a Cliff Gallop-inspired rockabilly phrase (Ex. 1) that uses pull-offs for speed.
The chromatically climbing lick in Ex. 2 reveals Beck’s brilliant technique and his love of flashy and dramatic fretwork.
Like Clapton and Page, Beck was steeped in Chicago blues, and as with those players, he developed a distinctive voice in the style early on. This Truth-inspired solo (Ex. 3) on a 12-bar blues demonstrates some unison bends (measures 1–4), ostinato licks (measures 5–8) and a quirky, pre-bend idea in the final section.
When Jeff Beck Group was released in 1972, it offered a premonition of Beck’s unique approach to the tremolo bar that would become so important to his playing in the decades to come. In Ex. 4, a wild use of the bar gives a modern and innovative twist to what could otherwise be more conventional blues ideas.
Our next phrase (Ex. 5) is in the spirit of “Freeway Jam” and a host of other funky instrumentals from the 1970s, and it showcases Beck’s use of the Mixolydian mode (1–2–3–4–5–6–b7). With its major quality and lowered 7, this scale is tailor-made for playing over dominant 7 and 9 chords. Beck often uses it as the basis for both melodic themes and improvised solos. Frequently, he further embellishes Mixolydian lines with bluesy ideas, like the Bb (b3) to B (3) leading into the final measure.
Beck’s impressive ballad work, inspired by the great Roy Buchanan, is heard on the classic Stevie Wonder composition, “’Cause We’ve Ended as Lovers.” In Ex. 6 you’ll hear many C minor pentatonic (C–Eb–F–G–Bb) licks with a host of bending techniques, such as compound bends (measure 2) and pre-bends (measures 3 and 7). Virtuosic ostinato–based figures are used to great dramatic effect in measures 5 and 6.
Beck’s revival of “People Get Ready” was a career high point in the late ’80s, and it made a clear statement of his relevance as one of the most expressive and distinctive guitarists of the day, already more than 20 years into his career. Bending finesse, with fingers and tremolo bar, and even a simple taste of a finger tap is present in Ex. 7. This is perhaps the clearest example of the precise tremolo bar usage to come, and worth mastering before tackling the likes of “Where Were You” or “Over the Rainbow.”
Our final example (Ex. 8) is a phrase from the Bulgarian folksong “Kalimanku Denku.” This particular vocal music is perfect for working on Beck’s tremolo stylings because it is, in fact, what inspired much of his playing in the past 20 years. Check out a compilation album called Le Mystère des Voix Bulgares to hear what Beck used as the model for his mature and advanced tremolo bar work. Also, make sure that you adjust your tremolo to float, i.e., so that it can raise a note by a minor third on the 3rd string. To check, play an open G note and be able to bring it up to a Bb.
The silky smooth slide man may raise a few eyebrows with his gear—a hollow, steel-bodied baritone and .017s on a Jazzmaster—but every note and tone he plays sounds just right.
KingTone’s The Duellist is currently Ariel Posen’s most-used pedal. One side of the dual drive (the Bluesbreaker voicing) is always on. But there’s another duality at play when Posen plugs in—the balance between songwriter and guitarist.
“These days, I like listening to songs and the story and the total package,” Posen told PG back in 2019, when talking about his solo debut, How Long, after departing from his sideman slot for the Bros. Landreth. “Obviously, I’m known as a guitar player, but my music and the music I write is not guitar music. It’s songs, and it goes back to the Beatles. I love songs, and I love story and melody and singing, and there was a lot of detail and attention put into the guitar sound and the playing and the parts—almost more than I’ve ever done.”
And in 2021, he found himself equally expressing his yin-and-yang artistry by releasing two albums that represented both sides of his musicality. First, Headway continued the sultry sizzle of songwriting featured on How Long. Then he surprised everyone, especially guitarists, by dropping Mile End, which is a 6-string buffet of solo dishes with nothing but Ariel and his instrument of choice.
But what should fans expect when they see him perform live? “I just trust my gut. I can reach more people by playing songs, and I get moved more by a story and lyrics and harmony, so that’s where I naturally go. The live show is a lot more guitar centric. If you want to hear me stretch out on some solos, come see a show. I want the record and the live show to be two separate things.”
The afternoon ahead of Posen’s headlining performance at Nashville’s Basement East, the guitar-playing musical force invited PG’s Chris Kies on stage for a robust chat about gear. The 30-minute conversation covers Posen’s potent pair of moody blue bombshells—a hollow, metal-bodied Mule Resophonic and a Fender Custom Shop Jazzmaster—and why any Two-Rock is his go-to amp. He also shares his reasoning behind avoiding effects loops and volume pedals.
Brought to you by D’Addario XPND Pedalboard.
Blue the Mule III
If you’ve spent any time with Ariel Posen’s first solo record, How Long, you know that the ripping, raunchy slide solo packed within “Get You Back” is an aural high mark. As explained in a 2019 PG interview, Posen’s pairing for that song were two cheapos: a $50 Teisco Del Rey into a Kay combo. However, when he took the pawnshop prize onstage, the magic was gone. “It wouldn’t stay in tune and wouldn’t stop feeding back—it was unbearable [laughs].”
Posen was familiar with Matt Eich of Mule Resophonic—who specializes in building metal-body resonators—so he approached the luthier to construct him a steel-bodied, Strat-style baritone. Eich was reluctant at first (he typically builds roundneck resos and T-style baritones), but after seeing a clip of Posen playing live, the partnership was started.
The above steel-bodied Strat-style guitar is Posen’s third custom 25"-scale baritone. (On Mule Resophonic’s website, it’s affectionately named the “Posencaster.”) The gold-foil-looking pickups are handwound by Eich, and are actually mini humbuckers. He employs a custom Stringjoy set (.017–.064 with a wound G) and typically tunes to B standard. The massive strings allow the shorter-scale baritone to maintain a regular-tension feel. And when he gigs, he tours light (usually with two guitars), so he’ll use a capo to morph into D or E standard.
Another one that saw recording time for Headway and Mile End was the above Fender Custom Shop Masterbuilt ’60s Jazzmaster, made by Carlos Lopez. To make it work better for him, he had the treble-bleed circuit removed, so that when the guitar’s volume is lowered it actually gets warmer.
"Clean and Loud"
Last time we spoke with Posen, he plugged into a Two-Rock Classic Reverb Signature. It’s typically his live amp. However, since this winter’s U.S. run was a batch of fly dates, he packed light and rented backlines. Being in Music City, he didn’t need to go too deep into his phone’s contacts to find a guitar-playing friend that owned a Two-Rock. This Bloomfield Drive was loaned to Ariel by occasional PG contributor Corey Congilio. On the brand’s consistent tone monsters, Posen said, “To be honest, put a blindfold on me and make one of Two-Rock’s amps clean and loud—I don’t care what one it is.”
The loaner vertical 2x12 cab was stocked with a pair of Two-Rock 12-65B speakers made by Warehouse Guitar Speakers.
Ariel Posen’s Pedalboard
There are a handful of carryovers from Ariel’s previous pedalboard that was featured in our 2021 tone talk: a TC Electronic PolyTune 3 Noir, a Morningstar MC3 MIDI Controller, an Eventide H9, a Mythos Pedals Argonaut Mini Octave Up, and a KingTone miniFUZZ Ge. His additions include a custom edition Keeley Hydra Stereo Reverb & Tremolo (featuring Headway artwork), an Old Blood Noise Endeavors Black Fountain oil can delay, Chase Bliss Audio Thermae Analog Delay and Pitch Shifter, and a KingTone The Duellist overdrive.
Another big piece of the tonal pie for Posen is his signature brass Rock Slide. He worked alongside Rock Slide’s Danny Songhurst to develop his namesake slide that features a round-tip end that helps Posen avoid dead spots or unwanted scratching. While he prefers polished brass, you can see above that it’s also available in a nickel-plated finish and an aged brass.
Eight ways to add excitement to your blues rhythms.
- Learn classic shuffle and walking bass lines.
- Explore chord voicings that can be combined with bass lines.
- Develop the ability to combine different patterns to create variation in accompaniment.
Combining bass lines with chords can be an effective way to perform solo or accompany a singer or other instrumentalist. This technique is often employed to thicken up parts in a setting where there's space to fill. While common among jazz guitar players, it is equally suitable in other styles of music, and lends itself very nicely to blues playing.
Ex. 1 consists of a common blues bass line. This line can be heard on many classic recordings and is a simple way to outline a basic 12-bar blues. We are going to use this line as our foundation as we begin to add chords in the next example. Some examples in the repertoire of this type of bass line can be heard on Albert King's recording of "Blues Power" and "Personal Manager." Another example of this type of line can be heard in Tommy Shannon's bass playing on the recording of the Elmore James' classic "The Sky Is Crying" on the Stevie Ray Vaughan album, The Sky Is Crying.
The Sky is Crying - Stevie Ray Vaughan - The Sky is Crying - 1991 (HD)
In Ex. 2, we start to combine this classic line with double-stops that outline the essential notes, or guide tones, of the chord. (Most often those are the 3 and b7 in dominant chords.) As you play these chords, work on getting the articulation of the chord tones to punch through while you continue to hold down the fort with the bass line.
We play a classic shuffle bassline based almost entirely out of A minor pentatonic (A–C–D–E–G) in Ex. 3. This is a simple way to outline the chords on either a major or a minor blues since this line does not contain the 3 that determines the quality of the chord. Listen to "So Excited" by Stevie Ray Vaughn on his album The Sky Is Crying to hear this type of line in action.
Stevie Ray Vaughan - So Excited (from Live at the El Mocambo)Music video by Stevie Ray Vaughan performing So Excited. © 1991 Epic Records, a division of Sony Music Entertainmenthttp://vevo.ly/hNrWkF
In Ex. 4, we apply this line to a major blues by using thirds and fifths to outline the harmony. For example, in measure 1, we play the 3 of an A major triad (C#) triad on beat 2 to punch the harmony through and outline the chord. Notice how we develop the line and add subtle variation by incorporating a "call and response" figure to this idea by slightly altering the line in measure 4. This type of variation can be effective when developing your own musical ideas. Remember when you create your arrangements that slight and subtle can go a long way!
It might help you to think of these double-stops as horn hits or stabs. Check out B.B. King's Live at the Regal for a textbook example of this. The horns on this recording play essential chord tones as a way to outline the harmonies and give evolving texture and forward motion to the rhythm section.
B.B. KING - Live At The Regal (Full Album 1964)
Ex. 5 takes this idea a step further by adding more double-stops. On beat 3 of measure 1, we outline the b7 and 9 of the chord, giving us an A9 harmony. We answer this harmony in measure 4 when the I chord returns with the b7 and 3 (G–C#) on the last part of beat 3. We play with these ideas throughout the rest of the song form.
In Ex. 6, we take a look at a simple walking line. It contains a few different examples of how one might connect the harmonies and serves as a springboard for developing other lines later on should you so desire. Notice the turnaround has been changed to I–IV–I–V in order to add some variety and to propel the music forward.
In Ex. 7, we start to mine for gold! We begin to add some chord inversions to match the walking bass line with harmony. For example, in measure 3, we play a third-inversion A7, and in measure 5, we play a third-inversion D13. Also, we begin to alter the V7 chord by using the E7(#9) chord to add further color, and pay tribute to one of my favorite blues players, Jimi Hendrix! As you initially play this example, make sure you work at getting the chords to ring throughout while you keep the bass line walking. Notice the fingering used in the notation to help you get this harmony to ring out.
In the recording for Ex. 8, I improvise two choruses on a blues using the above ideas and extrapolate on the ideas a bit further. I combined lines from the previous examples and played with rhythmic variation to mix things up. Also, I outlined the harmony with Roman numerals only to give you a better idea of how you can extract pieces and transpose them to other keys. A good way to dive deeper into this type of playing is to analyze and transcribe classic bass lines and horn section hits on your favorite blues recordings.
As you continue to work on your playing, I suggest listening to and watching Charlie Hunter videos. His ability to play fluid bass lines, comp chords, and solo simultaneously in a multitude of styles is a true embodiment of mastery. It might also be worth checking out some jazz guitar duet recordings that are regarded as exceptional examples of this style of playing. Although these albums are in the jazz tradition, many ideas about conception, feel, and approach can be gleaned and directly applied to blues guitar playing. The album Solar by John Abercrombie and John Scofield features some blazing playing as they cover both bass lines and chordal comping while trading solos. Another excellent example of this type of interaction and playing can be heard on the Jim Hall and Pat Metheny album.
This article was updated on September 20, 2021
Eric Gales’ method of playing a right-handed guitar left-handed and upside down gives him a sound that’s distinctively his. If you watch videos of him playing, you’ll notice he plays with his thumb wrapped around the top of the neck, like Jimi Hendrix or John Mayer. However, since his guitar strings are flipped upside down, his thumb is fretting what would be the first string to most people. This not only puts your brain in a whirl when trying to steal licks, but it also opens the door for some truly unique chord voicings. Gales, who fuses blues, rock, and classical together, constantly manages to play some truly otherworldly licks and passages.
Rhythm guitar is arguably the most important aspect of guitar playing, and it’s also one of the most challenging skills to develop. The discouragement many players feel when working on rhythms forces too many of them to oversimplify the nuances, and this can reduce a performance from exceptional to fine. In this lesson, we’ll investigate why rhythm guitar can be so puzzling and look at a few ways to keep yourself motivated enough to persevere and improve.
Pentatonics are certainly well used (maybe overused?) by guitarists. There’s so much you can do with them and there’s a lot of great music to be found within our beloved five-note scale. My aim is to go for the whole “sheets of sound” thing that was popularized by John Coltrane and later adapted to guitar by players like Allan Holdsworth. However, the technique arms race has slowed down over the last few years, with modern players opting for interesting lines that focus more on cool rhythms and unexpected intervals. Let’s get to it.
Learn to rip like one of the all-time masters of modern electric blues.
Mapping major and minor triads up and down the guitar neck can open new possibilities in your playing. It can also help you learn note locations on the fretboard, find new ways to play chord progressions, and inspire creative improvisations and compositions. But where do you begin?
Staying creative and phrasing musically while playing chords, especially over a blues progression, seems like an impossibility to many players. After all, most blues songs contain only three chords, the I, IV, and V. So how can you make those simple chords more interesting? The answer is by using chord substitutions.
What happens when you mix major, minor, and the blues?
- Develop a better understanding of the blues scale.
- Create lines that move between major and minor.
- Understand the intervallic makeup of various scales.
What is a Parallel Blues Scale?
It’s simpler than you think. When you have a major and minor scale that shares the same root it creates a parallel relationship between them. Whether you’re integrating the two scales within the same phrase, or playing one right after the other, this approach will allow you to “say” more than if you only used one scale.
Each scale, chord, and arpeggio can be boiled down to a numerical formula that tells you how to alter a major scale to get a specific sound. A major blues scale formula is 1–2–b3–3–5–6. You could also think of this as a major pentatonic scale with a b3.
The minor version of the blues scale is 1–b3–4–b5–5–b7. Here, we are taking our standard minor pentatonic shape and adding a b5.
Here’s the General Rule
When the key is major, we can use major and minor blues scales based off the same root. For example, over a G7 chord we could bust out both the G major blues scale (G–A–Bb–B–D–E) and the G minor blues scale (G–Bb–C–Db–D–F).
As a guitarist, it’s imperative to know both forms intimately. If you listen to the greats such as Jeff Beck, Jimmy Page, Eric Clapton, Pat Martino, George Benson, or Grant Green, you’ll hear that they weave in and out of both tonalities seamlessly.
The Parallel Approach
In Ex. 1 I outline both scales starting with the major and then the minor. Let’s break this down a bit more. Both scales share three common notes (G, Bb, and D). That leaves six notes that are unique to each scale. The 2, 3, and 6 really solidify the sound of a major tonality. On the other hand, the b5 and b7 are defining notes in the minor blues scale. These notes are what shapes the music that is built upon these scales.
The following examples use only major and minor blues scales, unadorned with outside notes or other scales, played over G7. As you’ll see, with good phrasing and rhythm there’s a lot you can do with just the two scales. In Ex. 2 I start nice and easy with a major-sounding blues run. Even by staying entirely within the scale you can take liberties and emphasize colorful chord tones on strong beats. For example, I kick it off with the 9 (A) on beat 1. In the next measure I start on the 13 (E) before drilling that b3–2 sound on beat 2.
Ex. 3 contains a fragment of the minor blues scale. I’ve been working on playing repeated four-note patterns through different rhythmic ideas. Here, I’m doing a four-note shape through sextuplets, or 16th-note triplets. As you work up the speed it can become very shreddy.
Next, let’s look at how you can blend the scales together. In Ex. 4 I primarily use the minor version, but a few notes from the major blues scale creep in, notably A and E. It definitely gives the line a Dorian vibe.
Just playing endless eighth- or 16th-notes can be tiresome, so adding more interest in the phrasing helps a lot. Ex. 5 starts in major but descends the minor pattern. Plus, the syncopation and rhythm make it pop a bit more.
There’s still a place for chromaticism—when used right.In Ex. 6 chromatic elements of both scales are combined so much that the tonality is a bit obscured. You can totally hear the blurred line between major and minor here.
Ex. 7 is a sweet country-style lick. This example sounds major overall, but there are colors of the minor blues scale with the addition of F and Db.
You can cover quite a bit of ground with Ex. 8. The line begins with an ascending major blues scale run, followed by hybrid chromatic notes within the quintuplets. The chromatic elements of both scales combined add color and again obscures the tonality, making for an exciting line!
Ex. 9 begins in major, then switches to minor on beat 2. Notice the extended chromatic line which is a popular melodic blues phrase. It starts from the b3 and moves chromatically up to the 5.
Our final example (Ex. 10) starts with a major blues idea followed by minor blues phrase with the entrance of the quintuplets. The opening chromatic line, sweeps, and the quintuplets make it pretty challenging.
It’s imperative to have the blues scales in your arsenal, both intellectually and technically. As guitarists, we keep adding new concepts to material we already know. The saying rings true: “What’s old is new again.” Until next time, happy shredding and enjoy the journey!