july 2012

Chops: Intermediate Theory: Intermediate Lesson Overview: • Understand the key elements of progressive rock. • Create and learn phrases using odd time signatures and rhythmic displacement. • Delve into

Chops: Intermediate
Theory: Intermediate
Lesson Overview:
• Understand the key elements of progressive rock.
• Create and learn phrases using odd time signatures and rhythmic displacement.
• Delve into the styles of Alex Lifeson, Steve Howe, David Gilmour, and other greats.

Click here to download a printable PDF of this lesson's notation.

Put away your cape and grab your axe. No, your other axe.

The progressive rock genre started in the late 1960s as an effort to elevate the artistic credibility of rock music. Extended musical forms, time signatures other than 4/4, and modal harmonies and melodies are some of the musical tools that separate this genre from other styles. Guitarists like Steve Howe (Yes), Alex Lifeson (Rush), David Gilmour (Pink Floyd), Robert Fripp (King Crimson), Ty Tabor (King’s X) and John Petrucci (Dream Theater) used open string voicings, harmonized lines, and time signature shifts to create a more expressive and melodic style of playing.

In this Style Guide, we’ll focus on just a few of the guitar techniques that are at the foundation of progressive rock—open string chords, harmonized lines, time signatures, and soloing style. Once you understand how these pieces work, you can combine and rearrange them to create your own journey to the center of the earth!

Time Signatures
Mixing different time signatures is a prominent aspect of progressive rock. While 4/4 is not completely abandoned, it’s good to get a handle on 5/4, 6/4, and 7/4. The first measure of Fig. 1 is an A minor riff in 4/4, and here we keep it simple by only using scale tones 1, b3, and b7. By changing the last two eighth-notes to quarter-notes, you can make the motif work in 5/4. I used a similar process to morph the original riff into 6/4 and 7/4. By adding notes or changing rhythms, you can adapt any riff to different time signatures.

Once you have a list of riffs, start putting them together in various orders. Every measure could be a new time signature, or you could change only one measure. Fig. 2 is a four-measure phrase using the sequence 6/4–7/4–6/4–5/4. Remember, be progressive! Build a nine-measure phrase in 6/4 or a five-measure phrase in 7/4 … the list goes on.

Expanding on the previous example, Fig. 3 changes the harmony in measures two and four to reflect a Gmaj7 sound. This give the entire phrase a modal, A Dorian (A–B–C–D–E–F#–G) vibe.

It’s also common to see measures of 3/8, 6/8, or 9/8 injected into a quarter-note-based phrase. Fig. 4 uses the original riff and is offset by measure two (a short motif in 3/8) and measure four (an expansion of the 3/8 motif). These can be tricky to play. If you’re used to counting quarter-notes, the time will seem to turn around, especially when moving from measure two to three. Start by making the eighth-note your pulse and practice slowly at first!

Take a listen to “Firth of Fifth” by Genesis or “Starship Trooper” by Yes and notice how many sections, chord progressions, and time signatures the bands used to create each tune. Pretty steep!

Open-String Chord Voicings
Open-string chords are one of the more distinctive elements of this style and are used by many progressive rock guitar players, Alex Lifeson being the most notable. The CAGED system and standard barre chords are still used, but adding open strings and arpeggio patterns can lead you to some new sounds. You can take an existing chord and lift up a finger, move shapes up the neck, or use your knowledge of theory to generate these voicings.

One approach is to start with an existing open-string voicing and move the bass note in half- or whole-steps. Fig. 5 starts with Bmin11 voicing that contains an open 4th and an open 1st string. The bass note then moves up a half-step to C and then down a whole-step to Bb. Keeping the notes the same on the top four strings creates a pedal of sorts—a common thread between each chord.

Fig. 6 takes a different approach in that the entire chord shape is moved around the neck. I started with a trustworthy C major (adding another fifth at the 3rd fret, first string) and moved it up the fretboard to find chords that I liked. This can add extensions and alterations to chords and is an easy way to add a new flavor to stock chord progressions. You should try this with every chord in the CAGED system!

Another voicing technique is to take the full 6-string major barre chord and un-barre it, opening up the top two strings. Fig. 7 uses the same brute-force method, moving the chord shape up and down the neck to find some interesting voicings that have extensions or alterations.

Harmonized Lines
I’ve got two words for you—“Long Distance Runaround” by Yes. All right, that’s three words, but Steve Howe’s harmonized guitar intro is a pretty good lesson in itself on how to harmonize a guitar line. Harmonizing two guitar lines is a crafty way of creating a chord progression without actually playing chords. To harmonize, you need to know scales and intervals (which are pairs of notes). Fig. 8 uses the A major scale (A–B–C#–D–E–F#–G#–A) and the intervals of a third and a sixth.

An interval of a third occurs when you pair every other note in the scale, or a third away (A–C#, B–D, C#–E, etc). Sixths are pairing of notes that are a sixth away (A–F#, B–G#, C#–A, etc.). Notice that when you flip a third upside down, you get a sixth (D–F# is a third and F#–D is a sixth). It’s theory magic!

So, why do we use thirds and sixths but not other intervals? Chords are traditionally built in thirds, so intervals of a third (or sixth) will sound like chords as well. For example, a D major triad has the notes D–F#–A. If you play only D–F#, it will sound like D major. If you play F#–A on you guitar and your bass player plays D, it will still sound like D major—nifty. You can harmonize with other intervals too, but they sound less like a traditional chord. Sometimes that’s good.

Back to Fig. 8: The first line is the melody by itself. The second line is the melody harmonized a third above. The last line is the melody harmonized a sixth below.

Guitar solos in most types of rock tend to use pentatonic scales and blues-based vocabulary. Bends, hammer-ons, pull-offs, and slides are not foreign to progressive rock guitarists and are used frequently. Combined with modes, sequences, and motifs, these techniques are used to create a more compositional and expressive style of soloing.

Fig. 9 is a Gilmour-esque example that mixes some extended chord tones and triplets with a couple of fairly common guitar bends in E minor. At the end of the first measure, the half-step bend/release on F# brings out the #11 of Cmaj7 and the 9 of Em7. The whole-step bend to B at the beginning of measure 3 (also a regular occurrence in the E minor pentatonic system) is the major seventh of Cmaj7. Also, the rhythmic structure of the phrase creates a “mirror” effect—you move from triplets to bends and longer notes (measure 1 and 2), and then reverse that by moving from bends and longer notes to triplets (measure 3 and 4).

Fig. 10 is inspired by Alex Lifeson’s playing from the early 1980s. This G Phrygian (G–Ab–Bb–C–D–Eb–F) example has three four-measure phrases and is a mash up of a few techniques. There are hammer-ons and pull-offs that incorporate the open 3rd string. When the scale or mode contains an open string note, it’s easy to create ideas using that string (measures 3, 4, 6, 11, and 12). Wider intervals (measures 9 and 10) are a nice way to balance the overall phrasing. They are near the end of the solo and balance out the 16th-notes of the previous phrase.

There are motivic sequences (measures 3 and 4, and measures 11 and 12), repetition (measure 5), half-step bends that emphasize the mode (measures 1 and 2), and even a homage to Mr. Lifeson’s “YYZ” solo (measures 7 and 8).

The topics covered in this style guide will hopefully provide some insight to progressive rock guitar playing. It’s not an exhaustive list of techniques, but will hopefully give you an understanding of what to listen for and an approach for learning and creating songs in this style.

Suggested Discography

King Crimson – In the Court of the Crimson King
Described as the group’s definitive album and one of the most daring debut albums of all time, it crushed the competition and set a new standard for progressive rock with Robert Fripp’s mixture of classical, Hendrix-like rock, and jazz imagery. Check out “21st Century Schizoid Man” and “In the Court of the Crimson King” and you’ll see why.

Yes – Fragile
This album marks the point where all the elements of their music come together, propelling the band from cult status to a worldwide reality. Popular songs from The Yes Album contained sci-fi and fantasy themes and Fragile capitalizes on that momentum, defining the Yes sound for the next decade. “Roundabout,” “Long Distance Runaround,” and “Heart of the Sunrise” are excellent examples of classic Yes.

Emerson, Lake & Palmer – Brain Salad Surgery
This album is ambitious, well realized, electronic, loud, and successful. It represents a high point for the band and is exemplified by the 20-minute “Karn Evil 9” trilogy. Pete Sinfield (King Crimson) helped provide the lyrics that sustain the carnival and fantasy epic. “Karn Evil 9: 1st Impression” and “Still… You Turn Me On” have all the multi-layered masquerade that one will ever need.

Genesis – Selling England By The Pound
Returning to their English eccentricity, Genesis created an album that has a storybook quality to it. It is a rock record that plays as a collection of short stories, but the songs stand up exceptionally well on their own. “Dancing with the Moonlit Knight” and “I Know What I Like” are provided by the classic Tony Banks/Phil Collins/Steve Hackett/Peter Gabriel lineup.

Pink Floyd – The Dark Side of the Moon
Over 1,500 weeks on the Billboard 200 chart and still selling almost 10,000 copies a week. Not too shabby. A collection of songs about mundane, everyday details made psychedelic through soundscapes, tape effects, jazz-rock, and the blues. More commercial than previous Floyd albums, but listen again to “Money,” “Us and Them,” or “Time” for the progressive, blues influenced writing and playing of David Gilmour.

Rush – Moving Pictures
Though successful as a crossover album, Moving Pictures reflects the band’s progressive rock sensibilities in such songs as “YYZ,” “Tom Sawyer,” and “Limelight.” Treat yourself to a listening of “Witch Hunt” and absorb the lyrical imagery, 2/4 measure, odd-numbered phrasing, and multi-sectional riffery of one of the more underrated compositions from this album.

King’s X – Gretchen Goes to Nebraska
On the heavier side of things, this offering from King’s X has been praised for its progressive musical approach and varied styles. Featuring harmonized vocals and woven bass and guitar lines, “Summerland” and “Pleiades” offer the core elements of progressive rock.

Dream Theater – Metropolis, Pt. 2: Scenes from a Memory
Heavier still, this concept album from Dream Theater is an elaborate composition that dives into old-fashioned progressive rock. A close listen will reveal the intricacies of the song structures, which include long instrumental sections offset by the narrative lyrics. “Overture 1928” borrows riffs and other material from “Metropolis, Pt. 1: The Miracle and the Sleeper,” a song from an earlier album called Images and Words, and “Strange Déjà Vu” has it all—complex meters, complex chords, soaring vocals, and riffs aplenty.

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Holding your excitement in check, you pack up your gear and head out for the club.

No matter how well you play, having the right gear—and knowing how to use it— can make or break a performance.

In my previous column [“Choosing theRight Gear for a Pub Gig,” April 2012], we continued with the story of a singer-songwriter— hey, this could be you—preparing to host a series of open-mic nights at a local pub. With the gig secured, we followed him into a music store where he auditioned a variety of acoustic amps, pickup systems, and accessories. And with the helpful advice from the in-store acoustic specialist, he decided on a hybrid pickup system, along with a 2-channel acoustic amp that would allow him to run a mic when playing smaller gigs without a house PA. Now it’s time for the fun part of the tale … the playing.

You’ve spent the week getting familiar with your new gear and rehearsing your favorite material. While the new equipment seemed a little daunting with all the signal-routing options, available effects, and EQ choices, you read the manuals several times and experimented with a variety of settings. You made a detailed set list, complete with notes on the planned EQ settings for particular tunes, and you’re quite happy with the amp’s built-in effects. The reverb and chorus add some nice color on several songs, and you even figured out how to work in some slapback echo on a little ’50s-style rock medley you arranged. Holding your excitement in check, you pack up your gear and head out for the club.

You are a little nervous upon arriving, but relieved to see five friends you invited to the gig sitting right up front. The room is already pretty full and a lively group of guys are at the bar cheering for the local hockey team on the widescreen. With the soundman nowhere in sight, you start to set up your gear in the middle of the stage when you suddenly realize you forgot the 20-foot extension cord needed to power up your amp. The only available outlet is at the back corner of the stage and the manager can’t come up with anything long enough to reach it. A quick run to the hardware store is your only option and you have just enough time to make the run. Not exactly the best way to focus and get mentally prepared for your first set!

You get back to the club with about 10 minutes to spare and find Charlie, the soundman, powering up the PA. For your guitar sound, you and Charlie decide on sending the board a line out from the DI on the back of your amp, and that one of the stage mics through the house PA will be used for announcing and vocals. There will also be a second stage mic and a house DI available for the guest performers.

Showtime! The bartender turns off the TV, the manager introduces you, and you open with an up-tempo Delta blues number that quickly gets the attention of the crowd. So far, so good—the overall sound seems balanced well and your playing is rock solid. Before your second song, you hit the mute switch on your amp and find out just how useful that clip-on tuner you purchased can be in a noisy room. Pushing the volume a bit during the third number, you find yourself experiencing a trace of feedback on certain notes, but a quick flip of the preamp’s phase-reversal switch completely kills this issue. You’re really glad you took time to study the manual! Things are moving along nicely as you settle in and work through your set list, when you come to the realization that the stage sound has a boominess that you can’t get rid of with the amp’s EQ. But you go ahead and finish off the set feeling pretty good and then head over to your table of friends.

The 20-minute break is flying by. After some high fives from your guests, you find out several other musicians have shown up for the open mic part of the night. You introduce yourself to them, pull together a quick schedule for their performances, and decide to conclude with an impromptu jam. With a couple of minutes to go before the next set, you discuss the boominess issue with Charlie. He suggests that getting your amp off the floor and onto a low chair might help. He also mentions that he could hear you using the amp’s chorus on a couple of numbers, but that it wasn’t coming through the signal you were sending to the house. So you quickly check the back of the amp and realize that in your rush to set up, you accidentally plugged the line out into the pre-effects DI. Mystery solved! All is good after a simple switch of the cable over to the post-effects mix DI.

And thanks to the good call from Charlie, you notice during the second set’s opening number that putting the amp on a chair completely solved the boominess issue.

As it turns out, the guest musicians are pretty decent. One of them has a little trouble singing in tune, but overall, things go well and everyone has a good time. The one guitarist who did not have an onboard pickup was having a pretty rough time being heard with just stage mic’ing— reinforcing the value of the gear investment you just made. And you discover that the second channel of your amp can come in handy too. Not having enough DIs to go around for the jam, you’re able to use the second channel for one of the additional guitars.

Your first live experience with your new gear is quite rewarding. And it certainly doesn’t hurt that your friends keep saying how totally cool and professional you were onstage. Now you can’t wait for your next gig to dig in a little deeper and really refine your sound.

Our little tale illustrates a key point: Having the right gear can’t always guarantee your best performance, but not having the right gear will almost certainly compromise an otherwise acceptable performance. Next time, we’ll take a detailed look at the inner workings of the individual elements in your signal chain.

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By zoning in on one simple scale or pattern in the book and creating my own exercises based on that scale, I was able to extract a huge amount of information from one simple source, while simultaneously absorbing it into my vocabulary in a personal way.

Chops: Intermediate
Theory: Advanced
Lesson Overview:
• Unlock the secrets of the Nohkan flute scale.
• Learn how to use octave displacement when practicing scales.
• Create angular phrases by combining open strings with fretted notes.

Click here to download the audio files from this lesson.

Last year I picked up a copy of Yusef Lateef ’s wonderful book, Repository of Scales and Melodic Patterns. I was overwhelmed by the seemingly endless supply of interesting material: pages upon pages of unusual scales, patterns, and exercises. My first instinct was to get out my guitar and read through the book cover to cover, however I quickly realized I wasn’t going to absorb much of the material skimming through it. Instead I decided to take the opposite approach—depth. By zoning in on one simple scale or pattern in the book and creating my own exercises based on that scale, I was able to extract a huge amount of information from one simple source, while simultaneously absorbing it into my vocabulary in a personal way.

This exercise has many purposes. You cover ear training, technique, getting your fingers to move in new ways on the guitar, and putting your own personal spin on the material. Although you could try this exercise with any scale, the example I will use is one I particularly like—the Nohkan flute scale, which I took from the Japanese scale section of Lateef’s book. In the key of D, this scale looks like this: D–E–G–A–A#–B–C#.

If we are going to describe this scale in jazz terms, we have the root, major 2nd or 9th, 4th, 5th, #5th, 6th and 7th. This scale can be easily adapted to jazz and offers a lot of rich harmonic possibilities. It could be played over major 7#5 or major 6 or 9 chords, for example. The first step in learning the scale will be to play it up and down on the guitar. I have arbitrarily chosen the 5th position to demonstrate this in Fig. 1.

The next step in absorbing this scale is to play it in all 12 keys in the same position on the guitar, starting in the key of C and going through the cycle of fourths. This is a great ear-training exercise. By avoiding sliding the same shape up and down the neck and falling into patterns, you are forced to really hear the scale and think about each interval on the guitar. You can start slow and work your way up in tempo. In Fig. 2, I’ll play the first six keys (C–F–B#–E#–A#–D#) up and down the scale in the 5th position. With each shifting key I will either move up a fourth or down a fifth, in order to stay in position.

Now let’s play the scale a different way: descending only, in all 12 keys in the 5th position (Fig. 3).

The next step is rhythmic displacement. By not playing the higher octave, we have a seven-note scale. Playing the seven notes as a steady stream of 16th-notes against a quarternote pulse creates a rhythmic displacement of seven-against-four. Let’s try this in Fig. 4 with the same descending scale pattern.

The last step is adding a personal variation. I love to use open strings as accents. This time let’s try playing the ascending scale only, while inserting open strings before the first and second notes of each scale. This creates a nine-note pattern—the seven-note scale plus two open strings— played in a steady stream of 16th-notes to create a nine-against-four rhythmic displacement, as shown in Fig. 5.

The variations are endless. You could try arpeggiating the scale, starting the scale on a note other than the root, displacing the octave every other note, or alternating ascending and descending scales. You could even try adding accents to the scale. For example, sliding into every third note of each scale, bending the pitch on the first and seventh note, or inserting hammerons and pull-offs.

At the end of this exercise, you will have hopefully learned a new scale and integrated it into your vocabulary, while working on your fluidity on the guitar neck and keeping in mind a personal style of playing.

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